Tempe Lake is one of the large lakes located in the province of South Sulawesi, precisely in Wajo ( 70 % ) , Sidrap and Soppeng . The lake is across the 10 districts and 51 villages. High water level ( TMA ) Lake Tempe until 2001 showed that normal conditions, with TMA average in the range of 4.078 m - 7.780 m dpl. The depth of the lake at this time when the rainy season 3 m and 1 m in dry weather. The surface area of the lake during the rainy season is 48,000 ha and flooded paddy fields, plantations, houses, roads and bridges and other social infrastructures which give rise to substantial losses. In the dry season, the lake area is only 1,000 ha, while in normal conditions the extent of reaching 15,000-20,000 ha.
The land around the lake is used for residential and agricultural areas . Biodiversity Tempe Lake seen from the number of fish species in the lake include: carp (Cyprinus corpio), Tawes fish (osteochillus hassellti), catfish (ophiocephalus striatus), Sepat siam fish (tricogaster pectoralis), Bungo fish (glosogobius guiris), Tambakan fish (Helostoma temmicki), and Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus). In addition to the biodiversity that owned the Tempe Lake , there is also a culture of the local area that can serve as a tourist attraction of the area. When this condition is very alarming Tempe Lake. Tempe lake ecosystem damage can be seen as follows :
1. Damage Watershed (DTA)
Damage to the headwaters of Lake Tempe caused by uncontrolled logging, including encroachment, shifting cultivation, illegal logging bringing the total number of critical areas Tempe Lake be 308,962.56 ha of total area of 830 485 ha. The conversion of catchment areas and pockets of water. Drought, regional catchment area of the lake decreased, so that the water reserves that can be kept dwindling.
2. Damage Border
The pollution in the waters of Lake Tempe, caused by the discharge of domestic waste, agricultural, residential and the rest of the fish feed. This is the cause of eutrophication of the water surface of the lake.
3. Water Pollution
The rate of sedimentation in Lake Tempe ie by 1-3 cm per year. As a result of this sedimentation, silting up the lake suffered and caused floods in the rainy season and drought in the dry season. If the sedimentation rate is assumed to be 0.38 cm per year, it is predicted that by 2018 Lake Tempe will disappear in the dry season.
a. Sedimentation occurred in Lake Tempe naturally caused by sediment carried by the river inlet that empties into the lake like S. Lawo, S. stones, S. Belokka, and the River Nila S. Walannae.
b. The occurrence of silting decreased the carrying capacity for the lake, provoking flooding in the surrounding area.
c. Land management that exceed the carrying capacity of the lake. The decline in land productivity.
d. Increases in population. The decline in water quality